Having a child or becoming parents is common desire of couples. Sometimes, if the couples are facing the problem of inability to conceive naturally after one year of regular unprotected intercourse, that state is known as infertility. The main symptom of infertility is not getting pregnant. Infertility is not just a woman’s problem. Men can be infertile, too. In fact, men and women are equally likely to have a fertility problem. About one-third of infertility cases are attributable to female infertility. However, men’s problems account for another third of all infertility cases. The final third may be a combination of male and female infertility, or may have no known cause.

Causes and symptoms of infertility in females and males are described below:

Female Infertility

Women who are not capable to conceive due to age constraint, reproductive issues or some unknown factors, may suffer from infertility. To identify exact reason of female infertility, the following symptoms and causes need to be analyse:


Typically, the exact symptoms cannot be defined for infertility, though some signs may indicate the female infertility.

  • Trying six months or longer to conceive but not success.
  • Females menstruate irregularly or not at all.
  • Periods are very painful.
  • Had multiple miscarriages.


Causes of female infertility are divided into following three broad categories:

Defective Ovulation: Defective ovulation occurs because of the following causes:
  • Physical disorders
  • Ovarian disorder.
  • Endometriosis.
  • Age factor.
  • Uterine or cervical abnormalities.
  • Fallopian tube damage or blockage.
  • Eggs not maturing during the menstrual cycle.
  • Eggs not being released from the ovaries.
Defective Transport: The following can lead to defective transport of ovum and sperm:
  • Occurrence of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.
  • Scar tissue after abdominal surgery.
  • Presence of psycho sexual problem.
  • Anti-sperm antibodies in the cervical mucus may also delay pregnancy.
Defective Implantation: Its occurs because of the following causes:

Congenital uterine defect such as bicornuate uterus and uterine fibroids near the fallopian tubes or cervix may alter implantation of the zygote and cause infertility.


Male Infertility

Male infertility is mostly related to deficiencies in sperm transport or spermatogenesis. An infertile man may have some signs of hormonal problems, such as changes in hair growth or sexual function. To identify exact reason of male infertility, the following symptoms and causes need to be analysed:


In most cases, there are no obvious symptoms or signs of infertility. Intercourse, erections and ejaculation will usually happen without difficulty. The quantity and appearance of the ejaculated semen generally appears normal to the naked eye. Medical tests are needed to find out if a man is infertile.

Signs and symptoms associated with male infertility include:

  • Having low sperms count or other problems with sperms.
  • Pain, swelling or a lump in the testicle area.
  • Recurrent respiratory infections.
  • Inability to smell.
  • Abnormal breast growth.
  • Decreased facial or body hair or other signs of a chromosomal or hormonal abnormality.
  • Failure or premature ejaculation.
  • Low sex drive, or other problems with sexual function.


Male infertility is usually caused by problems that affect either sperm production or sperm transport. Some causes are following:

  • Sperm production problems.
  • Sperm transport problems.
  • Defective Spermatogenesis.
  • Hormonal problems.
  • Sexual problems.
  • Anti-sperm antibodies.
  • Chromosomal or genetic causes.
  • Prostate-related problems.
  • pituitary problems from birth.
  • Injury or infection in the epidermis.

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